Who was the First Woman to Run for President?

Rebel Presidential Hopeful Victoria Woodhull

Bradley & Rulofson, 429 Montgomery Street, San Fancisco - Harvard Art Museum/Fogg Museum, Historical Photographs and Special Visual Collections Department, Fine Arts Library

“I now announce myself as candidate for the Presidency. I anticipate criticism; but however unfavorable I trust that my sincerity will not be called into question.”

Victoria Woodhull

victoria-woodhull-1While Hillary Rodham Clinton is being lauded as the first woman to be nominated by the Democratic Party to run for President of the United States, she is not the first woman to try to shatter the ultimate glass ceiling. Forty-three other female trailblazers before her have tried and added their own cracks. The first was Victoria Woodhull, who accepted her party’s nomination in 1872, one-hundred and forty-three years before Clinton’s historic champaign.
It was 1872 when Woodhull boldly announced her candidacy for President under the Equal Rights Party or the People’s Party. Unlikely to win the election, Mrs. Woodhull was undeterred.  Her supporters were an eclectic bunch that included laborers, Spiritualists, socialists, and, suffragettes. They were united in wanting change, and Woodhull passionately championed change for women. She condemned the popular Victorian notion that women were “silent angels of the home,” and advocated for equality for women in education, healthcare, home and church.

victoria-woodhull-presidential-flyer-1872

Mrs. Woodhull lived by her unconventional and wholly modern beliefs. Born into an impoverished Midwestern family of Spiritualists and Healers, she and her sister, Tennessee, worked as clairvoyants to help keep their family financially afloat. Married at fourteen and divorced by twenty-five, she and Tennessee moved to New York to become the first female stockbrokers on Wall Street. Later, they used the lucrative proceeds from the stock market to open a press, The Woodhull and Claflin Weekly.

 More details "Get thee behind me, (Mrs.) Satan!" 1872 caricature by Thomas Nast: Wife, carrying heavy burden of children and drunk husband, admonishing (Mrs.) Satan (Victoria Woodhull), "I'd rather travel the hardest path of matrimony than follow your footsteps." Mrs. Satan's sign reads, "Be saved by free love."


“Get thee behind me, (Mrs.) Satan!” 1872 caricature by Thomas Nast: Wife, carrying heavy burden of children and drunk husband, admonishing (Mrs.) Satan (Victoria Woodhull), “I’d rather travel the hardest path of matrimony than follow your footsteps.” Mrs. Satan’s sign reads, “Be saved by free love.”

Scandal and lack of finances marred Victoria Calflin Woodhull’s presidential campaign. Slandered as an adulteress, witch and a prostitute, Mrs. Woodhull, who did support and participate in the 19th century “free love” movement, at first turned a blind eye to the mounting accusations. To refute the charges, she exposed her foes as hypocrites by publishing articles from her press that detailed their own sordid behavior and deceits. This tactic failed, and Victoria Claflin Woodhull faced obscenity charges as a result. She spent election night in a jail cell.

Even if she had been free on the election night, she would not have been allowed to cast a ballot in the presidential election. In 1872, women were not allowed to vote. The 19th Amendment that gave women the right to vote wouldn’t become law until 1920.

Republican Ulysses S. Grant won the 1872 election, and Victoria Claflin Woodhull lived out the rest of her life continuing to fight for the rights of women.


“The truth is that I am too many years ahead of this age and the exalted views and objects of humanitarianism can scarcely be grasped as yet by the unenlightened mind of the average man.”

Victoria Woodhull, to a reporter after losing the 1872 election.

 

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Article originally feature on Historic Heroines July 2015. Edited by Kristen LePine July 2016.

About Kristen LePine
KRISTEN LEPINE is the co-founder and Executive Director of Historic Heroines. An accomplished writer, educator and mother, Kristen is often inspired by history and current events. She wrote about Nellie Bly and mental health care in CRACKED POTS, a play commissioned by Theatre J in Washington DC. Currently she is working on a historical novel set in ancient Sparta. Visit her at www.kristenlepine.com.
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